How does a Piston work?

The piston is a movable disc enclosed in a cylinder that enters the air through the piston ring. As the liquid or gas in the cylinder expands and contracts, the disc moves into the cylinder. Pistons help to generate heat energy and vice versa mechanical work. Therefore, the piston is a key component of the heat engine. The pistons are most widely used in positive displacement pumps and reciprocating engines.

The principle of operation of the piston is that the output force of the cylinder transmits the expanding gas to the crankshaft and the crankshaft provides a turning moment for the flywheel. This system is called a reciprocating engine.

Principle of the operation of the Piston

In each engine, you will find a cylinder. Your piston is in that cylinder. The number of pistons and their arrangement depends on the type of engine. The function of the piston in all these areas is to transfer the force of the explosive gas to the crankshaft. Each piston of the cylinder is connected by a rod that can move up and down. Mix air and fuel and insert the cylinder. The cylinder presses the mixture, the spark burns it, and you have power. The expanded combustion gas causes the engine pistons to move forward by pressing the bicycle pedal to move a wheel.

Piston Types

1) Flat top Pistons

The sound is simple, a smooth-surfaced piston. Flat pistons have the smallest area. Allows them to generate maximum power. These types of pistons are suitable for efficient combustion. The flat pistons create the most even flame distribution. The problem is that it puts a lot of pressure on a small combustion chamber

2) Dish piston

Dish pistons create the least problems for engineers. This is due more to their use than to any resource. They are shaped like a plate with a small twisted outer edge. Dish pistons are commonly used for booster applications that do not require a long camshaft or a high compression ratio.

3) Dome piston

Unlike concept dish pistons, they make bubbles in the middle, like on top of a stadium. This is done to raise the level above the piston. More range means less compression. While more horsepower means more horsepower, there is a high limit to the processing capacity of each combustion chamber. Reducing the compression ratio in this way can prevent engine damage. This is just a tool to limit the power generated to an area that the engine can safely handle.
If you’re just starting out, this is just the beginning. If you don’t put the pieces together, you won’t understand the whole puzzle. So, while explaining the role of the piston and the difference in shape, it is necessary to understand the whole engine to get a complete picture. Keep learning, and you’re on your way.

4) Invar Strut Pistons

In this type of piston, the inverter is an alloy that contains 36% nickel and 64% iron. Its expansion coefficient can be ignored, 000000063 / ° C). The inverter belt rests on the piston that connects the base of the piston pin and the skirt, and its ratio is so high that the final expansion of the piston is very similar to that of an expansion cylinder.

5) Automatic pistons

These types of Pistons have low steel grades, which are found in the piston pin. These inserts are formed in such a way that their ends are fixed to the piston skirt, in which case the bimetallic correction due to the different coefficients of expansion of the insert and the transfer of the base metal from the initials to the pin shaft when the piston heats, delete Accidentally pushes the axis.
This allows the thrust shaft to keep a small gap in hot and cold conditions and make it quieter.

6) Bimetal pistons

The pistons are made of steel and aluminum. Includes a steel skirt and low pin. Since the thermal expansion coefficient of steel is very small, the internal melting of the aluminum alloy makes the piston head and piston small, and the piston does not expand much, so a small distance can be kept cool.

Applications of Pistons

The main purpose of the piston is:

  • Reducing inertia also improves the mechanical performance of the engine.
  • It compresses the liquid inside the cylinder, thereby increasing the pressure and temperature of the liquid in the cylinder.
  • It also offers directions.

Advantages of the Pistons

The main advantages of the piston are:

  • Mechanically simple
  • Flexibility and reliability
  • Weight / power ratio
  • Multi-fuel capacity
  • The operating temperature of the turbine is low
  • Reduces vibrations and noise
  • Less maintenance
  • Easy start
  • Very suitable for heat recovery waste
  • Offers high mobility
  • Reduce production costs
  • Low NOx emissions
  • Provides the HCCI combustion process
  • Internal balance

Disadvantages of the piston:

The main disadvantages of pistons are:

  • Low fuel consumption
  • Supply of sustainable fuel
  • Low efficiency at part load
  • High burning rate
  • To reduce the need for equipment

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