Everything you have to know about paternity DNA tests

According to studies, fathers are supportive and affectionate, which positively impacts the social and cognitive development of the child. Additionally, they positively impact self-confidence and the child’s overall well-being. Since fathers play a significant role, paternity tests ensure to remove doubts regarding the identity. With the help of the paternity DNA tests, you can attain 99.9 per cent accurate results. You can also determine the parentage during pregnancy. It is called the prenatal paternity DNA test. So, in case you want to learn more about paternity DNA tests, continue reading this article. 

What is the history of paternity DNA tests?

The paternity identification tests have been utilised for over 100 years. One common method in the early twentieth century was blood typing. In this blood typing method, assessing the blood type provided insights into the paternity of the child. After all, the DNA is encoded with blood types A, B, O, and AB, and children can inherit one or two alleles from their parents. For instance, a child can inherit a blood type “O” from both parents because of two “O” alleles. In another example, a child can inherit the blood type “A” even though one of the parents have an allele “O” and the other has “A”. But this test was only limited to the information of blood types and wasn’t accurate in confirming the child’s biological father. After the advancement of DNA test technology, the tests provided accurate results. In 1985, DNA fingerprinting technology arrived, becoming a powerful tool for maternity and paternity testing. Ever since their availability in 1988, it has evolved. 

How are the paternity DNA tests performed and confirmed?

When it comes to legal paternity DNA tests, proving or disproving fatherhood occurs in a medical setting. Additionally, you can purchase an at-home paternity DNA test kit from an online retailer. The tests are performed in two methods: swab tests and blood tests. They are mailed to the lab for confirmation after swabbing the inside of the cheeks. In case of legal paternity DNA testing, the swab samples are sent to the lab by the office. The other method is the blood test method, where blood samples of the child and potential father are sent to a designated laboratory for analysis. The lab utilises DNA sequencing (a series of tests run by the lab) to look for genetic matches and confirms the paternity. 

What are the types of prenatal paternity DNA tests?

While pregnant, it is possible to check the match between the DNA of the potential father and child. In this test, the potential father and mother’s DNA is taken and assessed with the help of DNA sequencing. You can ensure that prenatal paternity DNA tests are 99.9 per cent accurate too. Well, the types of prenatal paternity tests are given below. 

  1. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): The chorionic villus sampling test takes place between weeks 11 and 14 of the pregnancy. When it comes to collecting the sample for this test, a small tissue from the placenta is taken. It might take several weeks before you attain the results. 
  2. Amniocentesis: In this procedure, a sample of amniotic fluid is drawn with the help of a needle. This test is usually conducted between weeks 15 and 20 of pregnancy. Similar to CVS, the results can be attainable after several weeks. 

Noninvasive prenatal paternity test (NIPP): The noninvasive prenatal paternity test is conducted throughout the first trimester, starting from week 7. The samples of DNA are collected in two methods: swabs from the potential father and blood drawn from the mother. In this procedure, you can get your results in a week or two.

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